Asterisk Tutorial 05 – Asterisk PBX SIP Phone Peers [english]


So welcome back to another episode of the VoIP guys now, as promised, we are going to start actually adding some devices to our asterisk server today. So what that means is we’re going to add a non telephone that we put on the desk and we’re also going to add a soft phone now it is. Why are we going to add a soft phone and because it’s cheap, it’s cheap? Ok, so that may be, it does cost nothing. Ok, so yeah, it’s good for testing purposes, whatever you can integrate as many as you want, and you don’t have to pay for the hardware and so on, because you can get free ones online, such as yeah.


It’S light: it’s a good, a soft one, to test, because it’s a platform, independent uh-huh – you can use it on almost every platform, apps or testing. Another good telephone for the make is telephone yeah, it’s called telephone. You can download it from the App Store and the App Store. It is also for free, it’s not good as productive, productive, soft one, but it’s very cool for testing, because you can enable as much lines as you want to and as useful them all in separate windows. And you can pull scenarios where you can test.


One call on to another peer and so on. Ok, so you can basically put as many pairs on as each one. I don’t know as many as you want, as many as your machine is able to start yeah. I don’t I don’t know exactly, but I did never enter a limit also turn off. So where do we start with adding devices pairs to our server?


The first thing is that we have to learn our ester discover what peers we want. Ok and what peers to register right. So we make an entry on the asterisk server and then we register the telephone through that peer all right and we need at least two peers, because we want to make a telephone call from one form to the other yeah. So I knew T pays attention to peers, so it’s going to go through the Machine use Yan here our iPad film technician is gone. We got an iPad instead, now yeah, that’s very cheap yeah.


Ok, we are on the console back on our console. We are locked in this route as usual and we are on our server and the network is prepared out of our last actually first iWeb. So the first thing is we log into our STS console and we say: sip show peers. What you get here is nothing yeah, so there is no peer and we have to create them. Okay.


How can we do that? We go out of here. Every configuration about peers and sip in general is done in the sitcom notice under et Cie and in the ETCs thrse directory. So we go there and we have a quick look into the sitcom and you can see it’s huge. I can start scrolling over 1 %.


2 % 3 % Wow, so we will not go through the whole line. Oh because we’re running out of time then, but you got ta check how many yeah first of all um. What is this – and why is this so large? They put the whole documentation of the config file into the config file right yeah. So our problem is, there are some lines which are important in which you’re doing some configurations, but there are somewhere in there and we don’t know where they are where they are.


So most people are starting with a empty file and putting in the things they want to yeah. But if you want to learn asterisk then it would be very interesting for you what is configured per default yeah and what should I add them uh-huh. So I show you a little trick: you just copy sip conf to sip conf auric and if you want to read the documentation and stuff, then just go to the copy yep Pacific, a toccata, our jab, then we go back to that file and now we use The magic of VI, okay: we have to learn it, but it is very powerful. Then we can say globally. We want to delete something and if it starts, if the line starts, that means that sign and if there is a space up one space or no space or as many spaces as we want and then um.


It is a comment as the Scriptures also yeah. Then we want to delete that line, so we throw them away. You can see that is 1427 line getting arrived, it’s a huge documentation, that’s a good thing because they have a lot of documentation yeah, but now it’s ripped out. We still have 128 lines yeah, and we have a lot of lines worth noting in the white space white spaces. We can remove them.


Also, we say if a line starts and if a line ends immediately, then it seems to be empty okay, so we can delete them and that’s it now we have the, I don’t know 28 lines yeah which are really important and really configuration lines in that file. So has or does this allow us yeah, we will have a general section. This is an important section there you do all the general stuff um and you can say in general, I want parameter a be to set to blah blah and in other contexts you can. Then say no, I want for death pier. I want something different okay, but it’s a good idea to have a general configuration with which is good for you, and some parameters are only for the general section.


Alright. The first example is the bind other is on which address of my server. Should the CIPS take listen, okay, and this is on every IP address I have, and this is a general parameter. You cannot change it in every context, because it’s at one time yeah and then it’s okay like that um. The first thing we see the UDP you bind other is enabled and TCP is disabled.


What’S that zip in general is in most cases UDP signaling and the transport also the voice is in UDP. You can change that to TCP tourists can do so. We can make another tutorial about TCP that advantages security. It’S in many cases it’s better, but many devices are not supporting yeah, but we don’t need that right now, so just sort, but the most important configuration setting here is the UDP bind other okay, we want to add one: that’s qualify. Yes, what does this one dip?


In normal case, if you register a phone to asterisk, he says hello phone. Thank you for registering and debt. It doesn’t really care, it doesn’t really care. He does not monitor the telephone. If you say qualify, yes, then estrous tries to qualify.


How fast can I reach that phone? Is it available yeah? Is it available blah blah and if it does not fit our needs, but any disservice that P, okay, if it gets too slow and so that you can do many detailed settings about qualifying? But in general we use the default settings and say just yes and then it qualifies it. The default is a very good default, so I at least a little monitoring tool.


Yeah then here we have some special things and those are macros. You can use those macros in other contexts and just include it yep, but they’re not used if if they are trusts here and not included in other context than they are just ignored, okay, so it does not matter for our configuration. We can just leave them as they are and then we create a peer for you and for me the forest. Pa name is James and the first thing is to say: are you a friend or not, you are a friend a you are a friend. What does this mean?


This means we have peers and clients, and so on, and normally you can say this is a client. He is only allowed to send calls a peers. Receiving calls of a friend means both directions. Also, we are receiving and sending coils and that’s a good setting telephone because they believe that yep, you need stability and then you need a context in any case. Otherwise you will use the default context.


I will explain that later yeah that will come into our cool flow down the die plant. Okay, you’re talking about die plants. We need that because the diet plan also has down texts. We will explain that later on. So just trust me, you will need it.


Okay, then, you need to allow on some colleagues usual a law and euro and a law. These are the standard codecs that high-definition latest an affair is DNR. Yeah, that’s on ice, TM, codec and there are two different codecs depends on which country you’re living yeah. But it’s not so important, so we just enable them. What is a codec?


If you have your natural speech now, it’s analog, your speech is go, see a log and you have to convert it to IP. Okay and the codec is the method. While you convert it from the natural speech, try to the IP and, if say, for example, I had a high definition. Audio handset, like in the Ealing review, did last time. What color would I need here?


G 722. Okay, it’s a high definition code. There are some other high definition codecs, and we can make another tutorial about colleagues that I can play around with them, but for starting, that’s, okay. The next thing we need is a secret. We need to register on to the s.


es cover and therefore we have to provide a secret. Our secret is very secret. That’S one 2008 and that’s the baddest idea. Yet just plain text password asterisk is able to make many sorts of passwords. Md5 hash passwords start, TLS, lab and so on.


We won’t use it for our testing. We make another tutorial about history security, so this is basically the simplest form of what of ratification yeah. So we just put it in there uh-huh and the next thing is: we need to parameter host and we put in there dynamic. That means we do not know what IP address hours, nan phone or our soft phone will have. It just will register yeah and tell the asterisks over what IP it has okay.


So if you want that and you just type in dynamic, if you have fixed addresses or you have not – you have a peer which is not a phone but the provider yeah zip provider. Then you could enter the fact IP fixed IP address or you can then register it’s too much for now. So for now that is okay! Then we need another peer, because if you’re alone car let’s go yeah, it’s a lot fun. No so I will also be a friend, then I define a context phones.


This can be the same context. We will see later on why, but for now, just trust me yellow the codex, the secret. I want another secret because you never know and the host is dynamic, backup, typo dynamic. That’S it save that up, save that, then we again, I’m not able to type any longer we go again to the asterisk console in the here is a sip, show, peers and no peers at all. Why is this asterisk does not read the file immediately.


That’S a good thing, you have to say now. I finished the changes, so you can’t do live changes and go wrong and do that. Okay, so you have to say now sip reload, then you reload the file. So if you have any errors in your files, then you we’ll be informed. Now our house is pausing now our sitcom.


What if you didn’t mistake there? He will warn us now right so now we should have those pews, sip show piers. Now you can see we both other our lucky PS now over and we are, the host is not specified. Our status is unknown, so we’re not registered at all yeah next thing we do. Is we go to our snow farm and try to register?


We failed in the last okay, but now we try it again. Yeah our display name is not important. You can put in there whatever you want it’s just this plate. If you were calling the other pier, then he will read in his display or explain it yep. The account is important, this one’s case sensitive, isn’t it and it’s the name which you put in brackets at the pier name, it’s case sensitive.


Also, yes, and then we have to enter the password and then we have to enter where we want to register. This is the IP address of our asterisks. Are you see, apply, save, and now we have a notice that the pier James is now reachable. Here we can say, see it’s reachable in four milliseconds and if it’s slower than that over, he will say it’s not reachable. Even if it is reachable, but it is too slow – this is the default value.


Okay, and here you can see now James hasted IP because of the dynamic host, we are sending our IP address and he is storing it here over. We can see the communication port um, which is used for the payload then, and you can see that asterisk monitors now. Therefore, if I plug the phone off, it takes a little while I think every 30 seconds or every 60 seconds. I don’t know the default value. Ok, checks.


If the phone is still available again, he will nearest it. So this is the first step. The second step is, we will start telephone the application. I told you that we can add as many accounts as we want over her full name not years. Sometimes it’s called domain, but what we’re talking about is yes, disk server IP address, we have a user name and now my special secret password so secure and now my phone is available.


Here is my phone and if you have more phones, as I told you before, and then you just get lots of those boxes cool again here su propia s –, you see my phone is faster than yours now. Why is this? Because here is network in between – and there is no network in between you could also say this is very. This is not very fast for an ICMP package if you’re using ping or something, then you send. I simply packages, but that’s not true in that case, because you are sending unzip option and the speed here means the hole runs through the whole sip stick: okay, so you’re sending an sip option package to the to the device and then it sends back a package.


The hole runs through lipstick takes 60 seconds or one minute ago. So, let’s just for the explanation, then you could have the idea that you now just can dial something yeah you can, but nothing happens. It says call from Matthias to extension, 100 rejected because extension not found in context. There are again those yeah mysterious contexts and phones, so we cannot talk to each other, both peers are registered and what we now need is the diet plan. That’S that selects or our future episode, okay, yeah, so there you have it next tutorial, beat our plans.


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